High-speed DDR4 SDRAM modules use DDR4 SDRAM devices with two or four internal memory bank groups. DDR4 SDRAM modules utilizing 4-and 8-bit-wide DDR4 SDRAM devices have four internal bank groups consisting of four memory banks each, providing a total of 16 banks. 16-bit-wide DDR4 SDRAM devices have two internal bank groups consisting of four memory banks each, providing a total of eight banks. DDR4 SDRAM modules benefit from DDR4 SDRAM’s use of an 8n-prefetch architecture with an interface designed to transfer two data words per clock cycle at the I/O pins. A single READ or WRITE operation for the DDR4 SDRAM effectively consists of a single 8n-bit-wide, four-clock data transfer at the internal DRAM core and eight corresponding n-bit-wide, one-half-clock-cycle data transfers at the I/O pins. DDR4 modules use two sets of differential signals: DQS_t and DQS_c to capture data and CK_t and CK_cto capture commands, addresses, and control signals. Differential clocks and data strobes ensure exceptional noise immunity for these signals and pro-vide precise crossing points to capture input signals.